ISSN 1302-6631
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale

Mustafa Savcı.

Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop the Smartphone Craving Scale (SCS). In accordance with this general purpose, the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) was modified to Turkish as a SCS. In other words, SCS was developed by using PACS items. Methods: This study was carried out on 429 university students (256 females and 173 males) in five different samples. The measures used included the Smartphone Craving Scale (SCS), Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV), Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS), and Personal İnformation Form. The structural validity of SCS was investigated with Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and criterion validity. The reliability of the SCS was evaluated using test-retest method, Cronbach α internal consistency reliability coefficient and corrected item total correlation coefficients. Results: As a result of EFA, SCS was found to have a single-factor structure. This structure explains 53.48% of total variance. This single-factor construct was tested with CFA. As a result of CFA, the single-factor structure of the SCS was confirmed in two different samples (χ2=5.14, df=5, χ2/df=0.399, RMSEA=0.016, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.94, CFI=0.99, IFI=0.99 and TLI (NNFI)=0.99 and χ2=14.21, df=5, χ2/df=2.843, RMSEA=0.123, GFI=0.96, AGFI=0.88, CFI=0.95, IFI=0.95 and TLI (NNFI)=0.90]. Criterion validity of the SCS was evaluated with smartphone addiction, self-discipline, impulsive-
ness, daily smartphone use duration, smartphone use history and frequency of checking smartphone in day. In the criterion valid analysis, the SCS was found to be related to the expected direction with these structures. Finally, reliability analysis of the SCS shows that the scale is reliable (test-retest reliability coefficient=0.79 and Cronbach's α internal consistency reliability coefficients=0.77, 0.78 and 0.77). Conclusion: When the analyzes of the validity and reliability of the SCS are evaluated as a whole, it can be said that SCS is a valid and reliable scale that measures smartphone craving.

Key words: Smartphone, smartphone addiction, craving, smartphone craving, smartphone abuse



Akıllı Telefon Aşerme Ölçeğinin geçerliliği ve güvenilirliği: Penn Alkol Aşerme Ölçeğinin Türk kültürüne Akıllı Telefon Aşerme Ölçeği olarak değiştirilmesi ve uyarlaması

Ozet
Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı Akıllı Telefon Aşerme Ölçeğinin (ATAÖ) geçerlilik ve güvenirliğini incele-mektir. Bu genel amaç doğrultusunda Penn Alkol Aşerme Ölçeği (PAAÖ) Türk kültürüne ATAÖ olarak değiştirilmiş ve uyarlanmıştır. PAAÖ maddeleri kullanılarak ATAÖ geliştirilmiştir. Yöntem: Bu araştırma beş farklı örneklemden 429 üniversite öğrencisi (256 kadın ve 173 erkek) üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veri toplama araçları olarak ATAÖ, Akıllı Telefon Bağımlılığı Ölçeği-Kısa Formu (ATBÖ-KF), Kısa Öz-Kontrol Ölçeği (KÖKÖ) ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. ATA֒nün yapı geçerliliği açımlayıcı faktör analizi (AFA), doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) ve ölçüt geçerliliği ile incelenmiştir. ATA֒nün güvenilirliği Cronbach α iç tutarlılık güvenilirlik katsayısı, test-tekrar test yöntemi ve düzeltilmiş madde toplam korelasyon katsayıları ile incelenmiştir. Bulgular: AFA sonucunda ATA֒nün tek faktörlü bir yapıya sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Bu yapı toplam varyansın %53.48’ini açıklamaktadır. Tek faktörlü yapı DFA ile test edilmiştir. DFA sonucunda tek faktörlü ATAÖ yapısının iki farklı örneklemde doğrulandığı görülmüştür [(χ2=5.14, sd=5, χ2/sd=0.399, RMSEA=0.016, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.94, CFI=0.99, IFI=0.99 ve TLI (NNFI)=0.99 ve χ2=14.21, sd=5, χ2/sd=2.843, RMSEA=0.123, GFI=0.96, AGFI=0.88, CFI=0.95, IFI=0.95 ve TLI (NNFI)=0.90). ATA֒nün ölçüt geçerliliği akıllı telefon bağımlılığı, öz-disiplin, dürtüsellik, günlük akıllı telefon kullanım süresi, akıllı telefon kullanım geçmişi ve gün içinde akıllı telefonu kontrol etme sıklığı ile değerlendirilmiştir. Ölçüt geçerliliği analizlerinde ATA֒nün bu yapılarla beklenen yönde korelasyona sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Son olarak ATA֒nün güvenilirlik analizleri ölçeğin güvenilir olduğunu göstermiştir (test-tekrar test güvenilirlik katsa-yısı=0.79 ve Cronbach α iç tutarlılık güvenilirlik katsayıları=0.77, 0.78 ve 0.77). Sonuç: ATA֒nün geçerlilik ve güvenilirliğine ilişkin analizler bir bütün olarak değerlendirildiğinde, ATA֒nün akıllı telefon aşermeyi ölçen geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek olduğu söylenebilir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Akıllı telefon, akıllı telefon bağımlılığı, aşerme, akıllı telefon aşerme, akıllı telefon kötüye kullanımı


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Mustafa Savcı
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 646
Downloaded:
Cited: 0

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Mustafa Savci. [Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549


Web Style

Mustafa Savci. [Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=13549 [Access: March 20, 2019]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mustafa Savci. [Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mustafa Savci. [Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549



Harvard Style

Mustafa Savci (0) [Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549



Turabian Style

Mustafa Savci. 0. [Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549



Chicago Style

Mustafa Savci. "[Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]." Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mustafa Savci. "[Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]." Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mustafa Savci (0) [Validity and reliability of the Smartphone Craving Scale: modifying and adaptation of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale to the Turkish culture as Smartphone Craving Scale]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.13549





Most Viewed Articles
  • Schizophrenia and mega cisterna magna: case report [Turkish]
    Semra Karayılan, Atila Erol
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 90-92
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36699

  • Impulsivity in patients with obesity and correlations with body perception and self-esteem [Turkish]
    G Sarısoy, A Atmaca, G Ecemiş, K Gümüş, O Pazvantoğlu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34469

  • The relationship between aggression and online video game addiction: a study on massively multiplayer online video game players [Turkish]
    H. Andaç Demirtaş Madran, Eda Ferligül Çakılcı
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(2): 99-107
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39828

  • Reliability and validity of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale for bipolar mood disorder [Turkish]
    Güven Bahar, Haluk A. Savaş, Ahmet Ünal, Esen Savaş, Hilal Kaya, Aynur Bahar
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(2): 141-149
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39827

  • The effects of the service of community mental health center on the patients with schizophrenia - evaluation of quality of life, disabilities, general and social functioning- a summary of one year follow-up [Turkish]
    Hülya Ensari, Bülent Kadri Gültekin, Derya Karaman, Ayşegül Koç, Ali Fuat Beşkardeş
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 108-114
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36380

  • Cases of sibling incest resulting in pregnancy [Turkish]
    Evrim Aktepe, Orhan Kocaman
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 177-180
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.35965

  • Eating disorders and psychosis [Turkish]
    Vesile Altınyazar, Fulya Maner
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(1): 84-88
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.38073

  • The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience: a validity and reliability study for adolescents [Turkish]
    Bülent Baki Telef
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 62-68
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36692

  • Job satisfaction and perceived job stress of the health professionals and the relationship between them [Turkish]
    Etem Erdal Erşan, Gülay Yıldırım, Orhan Doğan, Selma Doğan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 115-121
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34482

  • Death anxiety in elderly cases [Turkish]
    Zehra Öztürk, Gonca Karakuş, Lut Tamam
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 37-43
    » Abstract

  • Most Downloaded
  • Frontal Lobe Syndrome Developing After Head Trauma: Case Report [Turkish]
    Betül Çevik, Ali Yıldırım, Dürdane Aksoy, Erdal Özer, Semiha Kurt
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(3): 223-226
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.155354

  • Arachnoid cysts accompanied with psychiatric symptoms: Case series [Turkish]
    Sıla Yazar, Nurhan Fıstıkcı, Gülsüm Cantürk, Serap Oflaz, Ali Haydar Küçüktüfekçi, Alkin Yılmaz, Demet Yandım Kuşçu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 87-89
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.35964

  • Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results [Turkish]
    Çiğdem Karakükcü, Mehmet Zahit Çıracı, Derya Koçer, Gözde Ertürk Zararsız, Mustafa Reyhancan, İsmail Altıntop
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2018; 19(2): 169-176
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/apd.264474

  • Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach [Turkish]
    Meral Demirören, Yeşim Şenol, Ayşen Melek Aytuğ-Koşan, Meram Can Saka
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(1): 22-29
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.45731

  • Schizophrenia and mega cisterna magna: case report [Turkish]
    Semra Karayılan, Atila Erol
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 90-92
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36699

  • Impulsivity in patients with obesity and correlations with body perception and self-esteem [Turkish]
    G Sarısoy, A Atmaca, G Ecemiş, K Gümüş, O Pazvantoğlu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34469

  • Thyroid gland functions are affected in obsessive-compulsive disorder [English]
    Osman Mermi, Murad Atmaca
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2016; 17(2): 99-103
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.178087

  • Severe mental disorders, depression and smoking cessation [Turkish]
    L. İlhan Yargıç, Hayriye Baykan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 77-83
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34493

  • Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version among university students [Turkish]
    Cemal Onur Noyan, Aslı Enez Darçın, Serdar Nurmedov, Onat Yılmaz , Nesrin Dilbaz
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 73-81
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.176101

  • Investigation of mindfulness and affecting factors of mindfulness among substance users and non users [Turkish]
    Kültegin Ögel, Nuray Sarp, Defne Tamar Gürol, Eda Ermağan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(4): 282-288
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.169583

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version among university students [Turkish]
    Cemal Onur Noyan, Aslı Enez Darçın, Serdar Nurmedov, Onat Yılmaz , Nesrin Dilbaz
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 73-81
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.176101
    Cited : 17 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Burnout, job satisfaction and depression in the healthcare personnel who work in the emergency department [Turkish]
    Cem Gökçen, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Gökay Alpak, Behçet Al, Cuma Yıldırım
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 122-128
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36379
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale among bariatric surgery patients [English]
    Güzin Mukaddes Sevinçer, Numan Konuk, Süleyman Bozkurt, Özge Saraçlı, Halil Coşkun
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 44-53
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.174345
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Turkish adaptation of Young’s Internet Addiction Test-Short Form: a reliability and validity study on university students and adolescents [Turkish]
    Mustafa Kutlu, Mustafa Savcı, Yasin Demir, Ferda Aysan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2016; 17(Supplement 1): 69-76
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.190501
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The reliability and validity of Turkish version of The Night Eating Questionnaire in psychiatric outpatient population [Turkish]
    Nuray Atasoy, Özge Saraçlı, Numan Konuk, Handan Ankaralı, S. Olga Güriz, Asena Akdemir, Güzin Mukaddes Sevinçer, Levent Atik
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(3): 238-247
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39829
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The effects of the service of community mental health center on the patients with schizophrenia - evaluation of quality of life, disabilities, general and social functioning- a summary of one year follow-up [Turkish]
    Hülya Ensari, Bülent Kadri Gültekin, Derya Karaman, Ayşegül Koç, Ali Fuat Beşkardeş
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 108-114
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36380
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience: a validity and reliability study for adolescents [Turkish]
    Bülent Baki Telef
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 62-68
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36692
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • An evaluation of the quality of life of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families [English]
    Hasan Kandemir, Birim Günay Kılıç, Suat Ekinci, Murat Yüce
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(3): 265-271
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.46202
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The prediction level of caregiver burden on caregivers’ state-trait anxiety levels [Turkish]
    Zümra Özyeşil, Aslin Oluk, Duran Çakmak
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(1): 39-44
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39820
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric evaluation of girls who were married at younger age and referred for criminal evaluation [Turkish]
    Nusret Soylu, Muhammed Ayaz
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 136-144
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36694
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]