ISSN 1302-6631
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?

Gözde İkizer, Ayşe Nuray Karancı, Canay Doğulu.

Abstract
Objective: Around the globe, millions of people are exposed to disasters annually. Disasters may result in a wide range of psychological consequences in adult populations, including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS). However, little is known about the effects of the impacts of type of disaster exposure on the symptoms of PTS. This study aimed to understand the effects of objective and subjective impact severity of disaster exposure on symptoms of PTS in the aftermath of two earthquakes which struck Van, Turkey in 2011. Methods: Three hundred and sixty earthquake survivors from districts with different levels of earthquake exposure participated in the study. Consistent with the aims of the study, the participants responded to the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and a measure of earthquake exposure severity. The relationship between symptom clusters and impact of disaster exposure was examined through a multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The findings demonstrated differential effects of type of disaster exposure severity on the symptom clusters of PTS, showing that the two core clusters, re-experiencing and avoidance, differentially related to levels of subjective and objective impact of disaster exposure while symptoms of hyperarousal were commonly reported in survivors who experienced high levels of impact irrespective of the type of exposure. Discussion: This study provided empirical evidence for an important distinction regarding impact of exposure between symptom clusters of PTSD. The findings may guide the development or planning of psychoeducation-based interventions with differential focus on posttraumatic stress symptoms for survivors having different levels of objective and/or subjective impact of exposure.

Key words: earthquake, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder



Afete uğramanın öznel ve nesnel etkisi travma sonrası stresin üç belirti kümesi ile nasıl ilişkilidir?

Ozet
Amaç: Dünyada milyonlarca insan her yıl afetlerin etkilerine maruz kalmaktadır. Afetlerin yetişkinlerde travma sonrası stres (TSS) belirtileri de dahil olmak üzere çeşitli psikolojik sonuçları olmaktadır. Buna karşın, afete uğrama biçiminin TSS belirti üzerindeki etkileri hakkında az şey bilinmektedir. Bu çalışma 2011 yılında Van, Türkiye’de yaşanan iki depremin sonrasında afete maruz kalmanın öznel ve nesnel etki şiddetinin TSS belirtileri üzerindeki etkilerini anlamayı amaçlamıştır. Yöntem: Çalışmaya depreme farklı düzeylerde maruz kalmış bölgelerden 360 deprem yaşamış birey katılmıştır. Çalışmanın amaçları ile tutarlı olarak, katılımcılar Olayın Etkisi Ölçeği-Gözden Geçirilmiş Formuna ve deprem yaşama şiddetini incelemek üzere oluşturulmuş bir ölçeğe yanıt vermişlerdir. Belirti kümeleri ve afete uğramanın etkisi arasındaki ilişki çoklu varyans analizi yoluyla incelenmiştir. Sonuçlar: Bulgular afete maruz kalma şiddetinin türünün TSS’nin belirti kümeleri üzerinde farklı etkilerinin olduğunu; iki belirti kümesi olarak yeniden yaşamanın ve kaçınmanın, afete uğramanın nesnel ve öznel etkilerinin düzeyleri ile farklı şekilde ilişkili olduğunu, buna karşın aşırı uyarılmışlık belirtilerinin maruz kalmanın türünden bağımsız olarak yüksek düzeyde etkilenen deprem yaşamış bireylerde yaygın olarak bildirildiğini göstermiştir. Tartışma: Bu çalışma TSSB’nin belirti kümeleri arasında maruz kalmanın etkisi açısından önemli bir farklılık olduğuna yönelik kanıt sunmaktadır. Bulguların afete uğrayanlarda farklı düzeylerde görülen nesnel ve/veya öznel etki bildiren deprem yaşamış bireyler için travma sonrası stres belirtilerine ayrımlı olarak odaklanan ruhsal eğitim temelli girişimlerin geliştirilmesi veya planlanması için yol gösterebileceği düşünülmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Deprem, travma, travma sonrası stres bozukluğu


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Gözde İkizer
Articles by Ayşe Nuray Karancı
Articles by Canay Doğulu
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 1423
Downloaded: 321
Cited: 0

REFERENCES
1. Karanci AN. Psychological reactions of disaster survivors and preparedness/mitigation behaviors. M Kadioglu, E Ozdamar (Eds.), Afet Yönetiminin Temel Ýlkeleri, Ankara: JICA Turkey Office Publishing No.1, 2005, p.93-99.
2. Neria Y, Nandi A, Galea S. Posttraumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2008; 38:467-480. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
3. Basoglu M, Salcioglu E, Livanou M. Traumatic stress responses in earthquake survivors in Turkey. J Trauma Stress 2002; 15:269-276. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
4. Jin Y, Xu J, Liu H, Liu D. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adult survivors of Wenchuan Earthquake after 1 year: prevalence and correlates. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2014; 28:67-73. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
5. Nugent NR, Brown R, Stratton K, Amstadter AB. Epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorder. KC Koenen, S Rudenstine, E Susser, S Galea (Eds.), A Life Course Approach to Mental Disorders, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p.111-132.
6. Elal G, Slade P. Traumatic Exposure Severity Scale (TESS): A measure of exposure to major disasters. J Trauma Stress 2005; 18:213-220. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
7. Bonanno GA, Brewin CR, Kaniasty K, La Greca AM. Weighing the costs of disaster: consequences, risks, and resilience in individuals, families, and communities. Psychol Sci Public Interest 2010; 11:1-49. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
8. Guha-Sapir D, Vos F, Below R, Ponserre S. Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2011: The Numbers and Trends. Brussels: CRED, 2012.
9. Sturgis P. Surveys and sampling. GM Breakwell, JA Smith, DB Wright (Eds.), Research Methods in Psychology, fourth ed., London: Sage Publications, 2012, p.93-112.
10. Weiss DS, Marmar CR. The Impact of Event Scale - Revised. J Wilson, TM Keane (Eds.), Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD, New York: Guilford, 1996, p.399-411.
11. Corapcioglu A, Yargic I, Geyran P, Kocabasoglu N. Validity and reliability of Turkish version of "Impact of Event Scale-Revised" (IES-R). Yeni Symposium Journal 2006; 44:16-22.
12. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, textrevision. Washington: APA, 2000.
13. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics. Fourth ed., Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2000.
14. Schell TL, Marshall GN, Jaycox LH. All symptoms are not created equal: the prominent role of hyperarousal in the natural course of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 2004; 113:189-197. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15. Asmundson GJG, Frombach I, McQuaid J, Pedrelli P, Lenox R, Stein MB. Dimensionality of posttraumatic stress symptoms: a confirmatory factor analysis of DSMIV symptom clusters and other symptom models. Behav Res Ther 2000; 38:203-214. [DOI via Crossref]   
16. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth ed., Washington: APA, 2013.
17. Breslau N, Kessler RC. The stressor criterion in DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder: An empirical investigation. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 50:699-704. [DOI via Crossref]   
18. Karam EG, Andrews G, Bromet E, Petukhova M, Ruscio AM, Salamoun M, et al. The role of criterion A2 in the DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 68:465-473. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
19. The European Network for Traumatic Stress [TENTS]. The TENTS Guidelines for Psychosocial Care Following Disasters and Major Incidents. Amsterdam: TENTS, 2008.
20. Inter-Agency Standing Committee [IASC]. IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. Geneva: IASC, 2007.

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu. How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2016; 17(3): 203-208. doi:10.5455/apd.201001


Web Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu. How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=201001 [Access: December 13, 2018]. doi:10.5455/apd.201001


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu. How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2016; 17(3): 203-208. doi:10.5455/apd.201001



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu. How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. (2016), [cited December 13, 2018]; 17(3): 203-208. doi:10.5455/apd.201001



Harvard Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu (2016) How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 17 (3), 203-208. doi:10.5455/apd.201001



Turabian Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu. 2016. How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 17 (3), 203-208. doi:10.5455/apd.201001



Chicago Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu. "How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 17 (2016), 203-208. doi:10.5455/apd.201001



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu. "How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 17.3 (2016), 203-208. Print. doi:10.5455/apd.201001



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Gozde Ikizer, Ayse Nuray Karanci, Canay Dogulu (2016) How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 17 (3), 203-208. doi:10.5455/apd.201001





Most Viewed Articles
  • Schizophrenia and mega cisterna magna: case report [Turkish]
    Semra Karayılan, Atila Erol
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 90-92
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36699

  • Impulsivity in patients with obesity and correlations with body perception and self-esteem [Turkish]
    G Sarısoy, A Atmaca, G Ecemiş, K Gümüş, O Pazvantoğlu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34469

  • The relationship between aggression and online video game addiction: a study on massively multiplayer online video game players [Turkish]
    H. Andaç Demirtaş Madran, Eda Ferligül Çakılcı
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(2): 99-107
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39828

  • Reliability and validity of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale for bipolar mood disorder [Turkish]
    Güven Bahar, Haluk A. Savaş, Ahmet Ünal, Esen Savaş, Hilal Kaya, Aynur Bahar
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(2): 141-149
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39827

  • The effects of the service of community mental health center on the patients with schizophrenia - evaluation of quality of life, disabilities, general and social functioning- a summary of one year follow-up [Turkish]
    Hülya Ensari, Bülent Kadri Gültekin, Derya Karaman, Ayşegül Koç, Ali Fuat Beşkardeş
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 108-114
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36380

  • Cases of sibling incest resulting in pregnancy [Turkish]
    Evrim Aktepe, Orhan Kocaman
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 177-180
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.35965

  • The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience: a validity and reliability study for adolescents [Turkish]
    Bülent Baki Telef
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 62-68
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36692

  • Eating disorders and psychosis [Turkish]
    Vesile Altınyazar, Fulya Maner
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(1): 84-88
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.38073

  • Job satisfaction and perceived job stress of the health professionals and the relationship between them [Turkish]
    Etem Erdal Erşan, Gülay Yıldırım, Orhan Doğan, Selma Doğan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 115-121
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34482

  • Death anxiety in elderly cases [Turkish]
    Zehra Öztürk, Gonca Karakuş, Lut Tamam
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 37-43
    » Abstract

  • Most Downloaded
  • Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach [Turkish]
    Meral Demirören, Yeşim Şenol, Ayşen Melek Aytuğ-Koşan, Meram Can Saka
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(1): 22-29
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.45731

  • Frontal Lobe Syndrome Developing After Head Trauma: Case Report [Turkish]
    Betül Çevik, Ali Yıldırım, Dürdane Aksoy, Erdal Özer, Semiha Kurt
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(3): 223-226
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.155354

  • Impulsivity in patients with obesity and correlations with body perception and self-esteem [Turkish]
    G Sarısoy, A Atmaca, G Ecemiş, K Gümüş, O Pazvantoğlu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34469

  • Schizophrenia and mega cisterna magna: case report [Turkish]
    Semra Karayılan, Atila Erol
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 90-92
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36699

  • Investigation of mindfulness and affecting factors of mindfulness among substance users and non users [Turkish]
    Kültegin Ögel, Nuray Sarp, Defne Tamar Gürol, Eda Ermağan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(4): 282-288
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.169583

  • Characteristic features of perpetrators of sexual abuse on children and adolescents in four different regions of Turkey [Turkish]
    Ayten Erdoğan, Evren Tufan, Mehmet Gökşin Karaman, Mehmet Süleyman Atabek, Cem Koparan, Esra Özdemir, Anna Baranova Çetiner, Nihal Yurteri, Ülkem Öztürk, Mehmet Ali Kurçer, Handan Ankaralı
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 55-61
    » Abstract

  • Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version among university students [Turkish]
    Cemal Onur Noyan, Aslı Enez Darçın, Serdar Nurmedov, Onat Yılmaz , Nesrin Dilbaz
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 73-81
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.176101

  • Arachnoid cysts accompanied with psychiatric symptoms: Case series [Turkish]
    Sıla Yazar, Nurhan Fıstıkcı, Gülsüm Cantürk, Serap Oflaz, Ali Haydar Küçüktüfekçi, Alkin Yılmaz, Demet Yandım Kuşçu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 87-89
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.35964

  • The relationship between smoking & alcohol use and internet addiction among the university students [Turkish]
    Hüseyin Alaçam, Figen Çulha Ateşçi, Abdullah Cem Şengül, Selim Tümkaya
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(6): 383-388
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.172340

  • Death anxiety in elderly cases [Turkish]
    Zehra Öztürk, Gonca Karakuş, Lut Tamam
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 37-43
    » Abstract

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Burnout, job satisfaction and depression in the healthcare personnel who work in the emergency department [Turkish]
    Cem Gökçen, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Gökay Alpak, Behçet Al, Cuma Yıldırım
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 122-128
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36379
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version among university students [Turkish]
    Cemal Onur Noyan, Aslı Enez Darçın, Serdar Nurmedov, Onat Yılmaz , Nesrin Dilbaz
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 73-81
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.176101
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience: a validity and reliability study for adolescents [Turkish]
    Bülent Baki Telef
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 62-68
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36692
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The reliability and validity of Turkish version of The Night Eating Questionnaire in psychiatric outpatient population [Turkish]
    Nuray Atasoy, Özge Saraçlı, Numan Konuk, Handan Ankaralı, S. Olga Güriz, Asena Akdemir, Güzin Mukaddes Sevinçer, Levent Atik
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(3): 238-247
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39829
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The prediction level of caregiver burden on caregivers’ state-trait anxiety levels [Turkish]
    Zümra Özyeşil, Aslin Oluk, Duran Çakmak
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(1): 39-44
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39820
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale among bariatric surgery patients [English]
    Güzin Mukaddes Sevinçer, Numan Konuk, Süleyman Bozkurt, Özge Saraçlı, Halil Coşkun
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 44-53
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.174345
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The effects of the service of community mental health center on the patients with schizophrenia - evaluation of quality of life, disabilities, general and social functioning- a summary of one year follow-up [Turkish]
    Hülya Ensari, Bülent Kadri Gültekin, Derya Karaman, Ayşegül Koç, Ali Fuat Beşkardeş
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 108-114
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36380
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Childhood trauma in recurrent and first episode depression [Turkish]
    Feridun Bülbül, Ülkü Çakır, Cuma Ülkü, İdris Üre, Onur Karabatak, Gökay Alpak
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 93-99
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34484
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • An evaluation of the quality of life of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families [English]
    Hasan Kandemir, Birim Günay Kılıç, Suat Ekinci, Murat Yüce
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(3): 265-271
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.46202
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric evaluation of girls who were married at younger age and referred for criminal evaluation [Turkish]
    Nusret Soylu, Muhammed Ayaz
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 136-144
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36694
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]