ISSN 1302-6631
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment

Esra Demirci, Zejnep Lushi Şan, Ayşe Irmak, Sevgi Özmen, Eser Kılıç.

Abstract
Objective: This study aims to evaluate the plasma levels of neuropeptide-Y (NPY), leptin and ghrelin and in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and investigate the neurobiological mechanisms beneath side effects of methylphenidate such as lack of appetite, weight loss and/or decrease in weight gain. Methods: Thirty children diagnosed as ADHD with DSM-5 and 21 healthy children similar to study group with age and gender were included in the study. All subjects are evaluated with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). All parents filled sociodemographic data form, also parents of the chil-dren with ADHD filled Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). ADHD group evaluated with Barkley Stimulant Side Effect Evaluation Form after two months of extended release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) therapy. Plasma NPY, leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in control group for once and in ADHD group for twice, before and 2 months after treatment with enzyme-like immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results: In our study, when plasma leptin, ghrelin and NPY levels of healthy controls and ADHD group were compared; NPY level was lower in the ADHD group. Compared with healthy controls, post-treatment ADHD group leptin level was observed to be lower. In the ADHD group, only NPY level was found to be higher after treatment than before treatment. Conclusion: It was observed that NPY levels were found to be lower in the ADHD group than in the healthy group, and plasma levels increased after treatment. In addition, leptin and ghrelin levels not changed after treatment. Thus, further studies with larger study groups are needed whether these changes will be more meaningful when the treatment duration is prolonged. New studies may reveal neurobiological mechanisms beneath loss of appetite and/or weight loss associated with methylphenidate treatment.

Key words: ADHD, OROS-MPH, appetite, neuropeptide Y, leptin, ghrelin.



DEHB’li çocuklarda NPY, leptin ve grelin düzeyleri: Metilfenidat tedavisinin etkisi

Ozet
Amaç: Bu çalışmada dikkat eksikliği ve hiperaktivite bozukluğu (DEHB) olan çocuklarda iştah ve beslenmeyi düzen-leyen biyomoleküllerden nöropeptit-Y (NPY), leptin ve grelinin plazma düzeylerini belirlemek ve tedavide kullanılan uzun salınımlı metilfenidat (OROS-MPH) kullanımına bağlı olarak gelişen iştahsızlık, kilo kaybı ve/veya kilo alımında yavaşlama yan etkilerinin altında yatan nörobiyolojik düzenekleri araştırmak amaçlandı. Yöntem: DSM-5 tanı ölçüt-lerine göre DEHB tanısı konmuş 30 çocuk ile yaş açısından benzer 21 sağlıklı çocuk çalışmaya alındı. Çalışmaya alınan tüm olgulara Okul Çağı Çocukları için Duygulanım Bozuklukları ve Şizofreni Görüşme Çizelgesi Şimdi ve Yaşam Boyu Şekli (ÇDŞG-ŞY) uygulandı. Tüm çocukların anne-babalarına Sosyodemografik Veri Formu ve DEHB grubunun anne-babalarına Conners Ana-Baba Değerlendirme Ölçeği (CADÖ) verildi. DEHB’li olgular iki ay OROS-MPH tedavisinden sonra Barkley Stimulan Yan Etki Değerlendirme Formu ile değerlendirildi. Sağlıklı kontrollerden bir kez ve DEHB’li olgulardan tedavisi öncesi ve tedavi sonrası toplam iki kez alınan kan örneklerinden plazma NPY, leptin ve grelin ve düzeyleri enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) kitleriyle çalışıldı. Bulgular: Çalışma-mızda sağlıklı kontrol grubu ile DEHB grubu plazma NPY, leptin ve grelin düzeyleri karşılaştırıldığında, NPY düzeyi DEHB’li grupta düşük bulundu. Sağlıklı kontrol grubu ile DEHB grubu tedavi sonrası ölçümleri karşılaştırıldığında, DEHB grubunda leptin düzeyinin düşük olduğu gözlendi. DEHB’li olgularda tedavisi öncesi ve sonrası yapılan ölçümlerde sadece NPY değerinin tedavi öncesine göre tedavi sonrası yüksek olduğu bulundu. Sonuç: NPY düze-yinin DEHB grubunda sağlıklı gruba göre düşük olduğu, tedavi sonrası plazma düzeylerinin arttığı, leptin ve grelin düzeylerinde tedavi sonrası anlamlı bir değişiklik olmadığı gözlenmiş olup tedavi süresi uzadığında bu değişikliklerin daha anlamlı olup olmayacağına yönelik daha geniş örneklem gruplarıyla, daha uzun süreli tedavi sonrasında yapılacak yeni çalışmalara gerek vardır. Bu çalışmalar metilfenidat tedavisine bağlı gelişen iştahsızlık ve/veya kilo kaybının altında yatan nörobiyolojik düzenekler hakkında yeni bilgiler elde edilmesini sağlayacaktır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: DEHB, OROS-MPH, İştah, Nöropeptit Y, Leptin, Ghrelin.


 
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Pubmed Style

Demirci E, San ZL, Irmak A, Ozmen S, Kilic E. [Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2018; 19(5): 485-492. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575


Web Style

Demirci E, San ZL, Irmak A, Ozmen S, Kilic E. [Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=289575 [Access: October 23, 2018]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Demirci E, San ZL, Irmak A, Ozmen S, Kilic E. [Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2018; 19(5): 485-492. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Demirci E, San ZL, Irmak A, Ozmen S, Kilic E. [Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. (2018), [cited October 23, 2018]; 19(5): 485-492. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575



Harvard Style

Demirci, E., San, Z. L., Irmak, A., Ozmen, S. & Kilic, E. (2018) [Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 19 (5), 485-492. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575



Turabian Style

Demirci, Esra, Zejnep Lushi San, Ayse Irmak, Sevgi Ozmen, and Eser Kilic. 2018. [Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 19 (5), 485-492. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575



Chicago Style

Demirci, Esra, Zejnep Lushi San, Ayse Irmak, Sevgi Ozmen, and Eser Kilic. "[Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 19 (2018), 485-492. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Demirci, Esra, Zejnep Lushi San, Ayse Irmak, Sevgi Ozmen, and Eser Kilic. "[Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 19.5 (2018), 485-492. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Demirci, E., San, Z. L., Irmak, A., Ozmen, S. & Kilic, E. (2018) [Neuropeptide-Y, leptin and ghrelin levels in children with ADHD: effects of methylphenidate treatment]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 19 (5), 485-492. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289575





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